Abstract Botulinum toxin, also known as Botox, is produced
by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive anaerobic bacterium,
and botulinum toxin injections are among the most commonly
practiced cosmetic procedures in the USA. Although
botulinum toxin is typically associated with cosmetic procedures,
it can be used to treat a variety of other conditions,
including pain. Botulinum toxin blocks the release of acetylcholine
from nerve endings to paralyze muscles and to decrease
the pain response. Botulinum toxin has a long duration
of action, lasting up to 5 months after initial treatment which
makes it an excellent treatment for chronic pain patients. This
manuscript will outline in detail why botulinum toxin is used
as a successful treatment for pain in multiple conditions as
well as outline the risks associated with using botulinum toxin
in certain individuals. As of today, the only FDA-approved
chronic condition that botulinum toxin can be used to treat is
migraines and this is related to its ability to decrease muscle
tension and increase muscle relaxation. Contraindications to
botulinum toxin treatments are limited to a hypersensitivity to
the toxin or an infection at the site of injection, and there are
no known drug interactions with botulinum toxin. Botulinum
toxin is an advantageous and effective alternative pain treatment
and a therapy to consider for those that do not respond to
opioid treatment. In summary, botulinum toxin is a relatively
safe and effective treatment for individuals with certain pain
conditions, including migraines. More research is warranted
to elucidate chronic and long-term implications of botulinum toxin treatment as well as effects in pregnant, elderly, and
adolescent patients.
Keywords Botulinumtoxin . Pain . Neuropathic pain .
Non-traditional pain management . Headache